Has Humanity Ever Judged Other Humans As Less Than Human?
I am resharing this post because it seems many readers cannot see the connection I was trying to make between humans treating each other badly based on the color of their skin and Imperial aliens doing it. Perhaps you all just do not know your history? All I can think is that these reviewers are so sure of themselves becuase they or their ancestors have never been seen as less than human by other humans, that they cannot even imagine in a science fiction novel that aliens would do the same to them. This to be is mind-bloggling given the history of racism on the planet Earth.
I just received a shocking review from Germany, of all places, where the reviewer could not imagine the Imperial aliens not realizing Ensley is a sentient being because she is human. I'm sorry but the irony... Here is the sad story of Ota Benga again and how it relates to my book, "My Human Pet."
***Spoilers*** Ota Benga's story unlike Ensley's story does not have a happy ending***
I am sure that many of my readers noticed the similarities between the character Ensley in “My Human Pet” and that of Ota Benga’s experiences with being bought in sold in the early 20th century, ( minus the sex and the spaceships, of course). The only thing I changed was that Ensley did get her freedom and to return to Earth. And it was not just the guilt of Seb, but the entire crew feeling ashamed for how they had treated Ensley once they realized that she was just as sentient and intellectual as anyone of them that provided her with the means to return to Earth. I imagine Samuel Verner and a lot of the people who came to know Ota Benga felt the same way. But by the time Verner realized his mistake, he didn’t have the money to send Ota Benga back to the Congo, nor did anyone else who felt for him.
Thankfully, Ensley had an entire crew that felt guilty for treating her like a pet and were more than happy to pay to get her back to Earth, (probably so most of them could forget about their shame). In case you don’t know the story of Ota Benga and are curious, please keep reading, but I must warn you it is a very sad story. It’s crazy to think that this all actually happened, and I wish I could have written him a better ending to life as I did Ensley.
If you can imagine, in 1906 the Bronx Zoo had a human exhibition. An African man was kept inside a cage for zoo patrons to gaze at. Who was this man? His name was Ota Benga he was originally from the Mbuti and a Congo pygmy from the equatorial forests near the Kasai River in what was then known as the Congo Free State. Two years before he was an exhibition at a US zoo, Ota Benga had been on a hunting expedition in the Congo when the the Force Publique attacked his village. His wife and two children were murdered and Ota Benga was subsequently taken by slave traders.
At that same time in 1904, American businessman and explorer Samuel Phillips Verner traveled to Africa under contract from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, which we all know better these days as the 'St. Louis World Fair', to return from Africa with an assortment of pygmies. If you can imagine (this is worse than the aliens in my book I think), his intention was to display "representatives of all the world's peoples, ranging from smallest pygmies to the most gigantic peoples, from the darkest blacks to the dominant whites" to show what was commonly thought then, among most white Americans and Europeans, to be kind of cultural evolution from the most barbaric to the most civilized. So, Verner purchased Ota Benga from slave traders for a pound of salt and a bolt of cloth. Verner later lied and said he had rescued Ota Benga from cannibals, but this was no doubt from the guilt of what he had done when he realized that he had destroyed another sentient man’s life.
However back to the story, after Verner purchased Ota Benga and the other Africans they sailed back to the US to be exhibited at the St. Louis World Fair. The Africans turned out to be a very popular attraction and Ota Benga was specifically mentioned in the local newspapers of the time. Visitors were curious to inspect his teeth that had been sharpened into points. Not surprisingly, it wasn’t long before the Africans realized that they could charge money for the photographs they took with fair visitors and performances.
One newspaper wrote of Ota Benga that he was "the only genuine African cannibal in America, [his teeth were] worth the five cents he charges for showing them to visitors".
At this point, Verner must have felt the first pangs of guilt for putting Ota Benga and the other Africans on display for people to only view them as ‘savages’ because he took them all back to Africa, including Ota Benga. And it’s thought that a genuine friendship must have formed between the two men, because after Ota Benga’s second wife died, he chose to return with Verner to the US for a second time. (Oh, Ota Benga if we could have told you to stay in Africa!)
Back in the US, Verner arranged for the Ota Benga to stay in a spare room at the American Museum of Natural History in NYC while he looked after his other business affairs which were failing miserably. Ota Benga was given a proper suit to wear and a position at the museum entertaining visitors, but it wasn’t long before he decided he wanted to return to Africa. Which wasn't surprising as he got no respect at the museum. He was seen as living, breathing, exhibition of savagery.
The writers Bradford and Blume imagined his feelings:
"What at first held his attention now made him want to flee. It was maddening to be inside – to be swallowed whole – so long. He had an image of himself, stuffed, behind glass, but somehow still alive, crouching over a fake campfire, feeding meat to a lifeless child. Museum silence became a source of torment, a kind of noise; he needed birdsong, breezes, trees."
Ota Benga tried to fight back against his employers’ at the museum who constantly represented him as a ‘savage’ but it was futile. There were too many instances when Ota Benga refused to act in the way that pleased the museum and the museum refused to see Ota Benga as an equal, so Verner had to find another place for Ota Benga.
In 1906, Ota Benga was moved to the Bronx Zoo. It is assumed Verner didn’t return him to Africa because, at that time, Verner was still struggling financially. William Hornaday, the director of the zoo, initially enlisted Ota Benga to help maintain the animal habitats, but there is no record of Ota Benga ever being paid for his work. And it wasn’t long before Hornaday noticed that visitors took more of a real interest in Ota Benga. They liked him more than the animals on display and he saw dollar signs. At first Ota Benga was encouraged to spend a lot of time in the Monkey House and then finally Ota Benga and an orangutan named Dohong, who Ota Benga had taught tricks to, shared an exhibition. The zoo encouraged Ota Benga to hang his hammock in the Monkey House and shoot his bow and arrow for visitors. (This is 41 years after the Emancipation Proclamation).
The exhibition officially opened on September 8, 1906.
The sign on the exhibit read:
The African Pygmy, "Ota Benga."
Age, 23 years. Height, 4 feet 11 inches.
Weight, 103 pounds. Brought from the
Kasai River, Congo Free State, South Cen-
tral Africa, by Dr. Samuel P. Verner. Ex-
hibited each afternoon during September.
Many people were shocked and horrified at seeing Ota Benga at the zoo with the monkeys.
Reverend James H. Gordon, said this after seeing Ota Benga at the zoo,
"Our race, we think, is depressed enough, without exhibiting one of us with the apes ... We think we are worthy of being considered human beings, with souls."
An editorial in The New York Times suggested:
"We do not quite understand all the emotion which others are expressing in the matter ... It is absurd to make moan over the imagined humiliation and degradation Benga is suffering. The pygmies ... are very low in the human scale, and the suggestion that Benga should be in a school instead of a cage ignores the high probability that school would be a place ... from which he could draw no advantage whatever. The idea that men are all much alike except as they have had or lacked opportunities for getting an education out of books is now far out of date."
Hornday didn't care about the bad press he received. The money from Ota Benga was pouring in. So to protect his exhibition, he gained the support of Madison Grant, then Secretary of the New York Zoological Society, who lobbied that putting Ota Benga on display with the apes at the Bronx Zoo was natural. It comes as no surprise that this is the same Gran who became famous as a racial anthropologist and eugenicist a decade later, supporting the idea that some ethnicities were lower than others.
Finally, to please all parties, a compromise was struck and it was decided Ota Benga could roam around the zoo freely. Unfortunately for Ota Benga, even being outside his exhibition, he was often taunted both verbally and physically by zoo visitors. Naturally, this caused Ota Benga to become more mischievous and sometimes even violent towards visitors and wasn’t long before the Bronx Zoo decided that Ota Benga needed to leave and that the money wasn't worth it. Again, Verner tried to find him employment it was not possible. Eventually Ota Benga was given to Rev. Gordon, who had been appalled seeing him at the zoo, and he placed Ota Benga in the Howard Colored Orphan Asylum, a church-sponsored orphanage in Brooklyn that Gordon supervised. However, as the unwelcome press attention continued, in January 1910, Gordon arranged for Ota Benga's relocation to Lynchburg, Virginia, where he lived with the McCray family. Gordon also arranged for Ota Benga’s teeth to be capped and for him to be educated so that he could better fit into American society and possibly find real employment. For awhile things seemed to be improving for Ota Benga. Once his English was good enough, he was able to get a job at a tobacco factory and began saving money to return to Africa.
However, Ota Benga's tale doesn't end well. As WWI broke out in 1914, all passenger ships between the US and the Congo stopped. Ota Benga became so depressed at the thought of never being able to return to the Congo that in 1916, at 32 years old, he built a ceremonial fire, removed the caps from his teeth, and shot himself in the heart. (Are you crying? Because I am crying).
Ota Benga was first buried in an unmarked grave in the black section of the Old City Cemetery, but in 2017 received a historic marker in Lynchburg, Virginia.
Now back to 'My Human Pet', If we were to be taken by aliens would they treat us with any kind of respect? I doubt it. We can barely get ourselves to the moon. We would be treated as lesser beings, no matter how closely we resembled those aliens. Not unlike how Americans and Europeans treated Ota Benga. The Imperial aliens just like the white people in the 19th century weren't looking at science or facts, they are lead by their own propoganda and prejudices about humans.
Had Ensley been able to remain with Seb as a pet would she have been happy? I doubt it . What do we want most out of our lives to give them meaning? Freedom to make our own decisions and respect from the society we live in. Unfortunately, Ensley would have never had either of those things as a pet and how long would it have taken before Seb resented her for his own guilt of buying her? Just as Verner felt the guilt of buying Ota Benga for a bolt of cloth and some salt. I have no doubt he felt such guilt that that is why he lied later in life.
Humans have stupidly sent our address to the rest of the galaxy. According to Time Magazine, two probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have had golden records onboard since 1977, giving not only music from our planet but also a message from former President Jimmy Carter and 115 analog-encoded messages telling aliens who we are and where to find us. The hubris of these people who thought this was a good idea obviously were never able to imagine themselves as Ota Benga or read books like “My Human Pet”. They could never imagine themselves as barbaric lesser people and if we don’t get our act together this will be humanity’s downfall, (if we don’t kill each other first through war or kill our only planet through pollution). Alien contact, at the best will be what happened to either of these two, Ensley or Ota Benga, and at the worst our alienation as a species.
Bradford, Phillips Verner; Blume, Harvey (1992). Ota Benga: The Pygmy in the Zoo. New York: St. Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-312-08276-5.
Bradford and Blume (1992), p. 54.
"Man and Monkey Show Disapproved by Clergy," The New York Times, September 10, 1906, p. 1.
Keller, Mitch (August 6, 2006). "The Scandal at the Zoo". The New York Times.
"100 years ago today, Ota Benga ended his horrible life after caged as 'pygmy' at Bronx Zoo". RT International. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
Doss, Catherine (September 12, 2017). "Man caged in NYC zoo to receive historical marker in Lynchburg". WSET. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
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